European Strabismological Association By‑Laws

Amended and adopted at the General Business Meeting

Helsinki, Finland - June 2019

Article 1:

The European Strabismological Association (ESA) derives from the CESSD founded in Paris in May 1962. The new association was founded with the aim of opening the former CESSD to all persons who have a special interest in eye motility and disturbances of binocular vision.

Article 2:

The aims of the European Strabismological Association are:

a)   to disseminate knowledge of all sensory and motor aspects of strabismus and other disorders of ocular motility,

b)   to disseminate knowledge of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures,

c)   to foster clinical and experimental research,

d)   to create as far as possible a common global terminology in spite of differences of language.

e)   The aims of ESA are only and uniquely non-profit ones. This means that ESA promotes science and research and thus contributes a considerable amount to public health. ESA does this by promoting the understanding of visual development and by promoting therapies for the treatment of disturbances of vision, particularly new therapies for treating misalignments of the eyes with or without decrease of visual acuity.

This aim is realized by organising scientific meetings, by supporting scholarships for young ophthalmologists to enable them to learn how to treat strabismic disorders, and by exchange and collaboration with other scientific organisations by organising symposia at other ophthalmological scientific meetings.

Article 3:

The ESA is autonomous. It has its administrative seat in the city of residence of the Secretary/Treasurer.

If the Secretary-treasurer is unable to continue in office, a replacement may be appointed by the council to act until the next General Meeting of the Association.

ESA acts selflessly. ESA does not aim to make a profit. The resources of ESA can only be used for aims stated in the bylaws. No ESA member or member of the ESA Council shall benefit financially from the Association. Expenses incurred by members in the conduct of the business of the Association may be reimbursed at the discression of the Council. None should get an advantage by any disproportionate reimbursement or gratuity In the event of dissolution of the Association, any residual assets shall be distributed to the International Strabismus Association (ISA), which also works for the benefit of children with eye disease or adults with strabismus.

 Article 4:

The Association has four classes of membership: Ordinary, Associate, Honorary and Senior. Any medically qualified individual, proposed in writing by two Ordinary, Senior or Honorary members, may become an Ordinary member by decision of the Executive Committee. Any individual without a medical qualification, proposed in writing by two Ordinary, Senior or Honorary members, may become an Associate member by decision of the Executive Committee. Any individual who has performed particularly meritorious work in strabismology may become an Honorary member by majority vote of members at the general business meeting. Any Ordinary or Associate member who retires completely from professional activity may request to become a Senior member and be exempt from membership fees. All members may vote. Failure to pay annual dues shall automatically disqualify membership until dues are paid.

 Article 5:

The annual membership fee will be fixed at the general business meeting. The money must be paid in the currency of the country of residence of the Secretary/Treasurer. Costs of money transfer are the responsibility of the member remitting the dues. Honorary and Senior members are exempt from membership fees.

 Article 6:

The association shall be managed by an Executive Committee consisting of: 

- 1 President 

- 3 Vice-Presidents 

- 1 Secretary/Treasurer 

- 3 Councillors 

The elections for the Executive Committee are held regularly every four years. The members of the association elect each member of the Executive Committee from among the ordinary members at the general business meeting, for a period of 4 years. Re-election is possible for one further term of 4 years. If a member of the Executive Committee reaches the end of their term of office in a year before the term of the Executive Committee, they shall retain their position until the new elections are held. If the Executive Committee reaches the end of their term of office in a year in which a meeting of the association is not held, they shall retain their position until the next general business meeting is held. The composition of the Executive Committee should reflect as far as possible, representation of regions, languages and location of future meetings of the Association. After nominations by members present at the general business meeting, the vote will be by show of hands or if requested by a secret written ballot. A simple majority of votes will decide the outcome. If no candidate obtains an absolute majority of votes, the election will be repeated with the two candidates who obtained the most votes in the first ballot. If such a further election results in a tie, the president shall have the casting vote. Any member of the Executive Committee who fails to attend two successive meetings of the association will be accepted as resigned.. The Executive Committee fixes the date and place of the scientific meeting and appoints a Programme Chairman and Committee to determine the programme of the sessions. It has the power to co-opt other members of the ESA if required, for instance to organise the Scientific Meeting. Co-opted members will have all rights of elected Executive Committee members with the exception of voting rights at Executive Committee meetings. Co -opted members shall serve a term of two years and their co-option cannot be renewed. Time served on the Executive Committee as a co-opted member does not count with respect to the rules for elected members. Therefore a co-opted member if elected can then serve a full two terms as an elected Executive Committee member. 

The President presides at meeting of the Executive Committee, the general business meeting and all other meetings of the association. He/she may temporarily delegate his/her functions to one of the Vice-Presidents or another member of the Executive Committee. The Vice-Presidents may assume the duties of the President in the event of the President being unable to perform any of his/her duties. 

The Secretary/Treasurer shall: 

a) maintain a membership roster and arrange the collection of membership fees, 

b) record the minutes of meetings, 

c) present a report at the general business meeting, 

d) conduct the correspondence of the Association as necessary. 

One or two of the Councillors shall organize future meetings of the ESA.

 Article 7:

A meeting of the association shall take place every year, except in a year when a meeting of the International Strabismological Association is held. A Programme Committee shall be appointed by the Executive Committee to select the papers and posters presented at the meeting. The selection process should as far as possible be guided by considerations of high scientific quality and good ethical practice. An Editor will be appointed from among the membership by the Executive Committee to prepare and arrange publication of the proceedings. In the event of a communication at the meeting failing lo satisfy the Programme Committee of adequate standards of medical ethical practice, that communication may be excluded from the proceedings volume. All members in good standing will receive a copy of the proceedings volume  which may be in electronic format.A General Business Meeting shall be held as part of the programme of the meeting of the association, with a quorum of not less than thirty (30) members. Voting shall be by show of hands, or if deemed necessary, a secret written ballot may be held. In the case of a tie, the President shall have the casting vote. There shall be no voting by proxy. 

Proposed changes to the by-Laws shall be submitted to the Secretary not less than 6 months before the next general business meeting, and communicated to all members not less than 3 months before the next general business meeting, and shall be voted on at the meeting.

 Article 8:

The official languages of the ESA are English, French and German.